TOEFL Test Prep Planner - ETS

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You've made the right decision to take the TOEFL® test—the test that gives you .... To supplement the Planner materials, we encourage you to purchase these.

TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

test preparation Campus lifE reading proficiency 130 countries speaking essential listening most widely accepted writing go anywhere your ideas do anything communicate become Successful university classroom preparation plan success test preparation

An eight-week plan to prepare for the TOEFL iBT® test, including: • Skill-building activities • Sample TOEFL iBT test questions • Tips for success on test day ... and beyond!

TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

Contents Foreword............................................................................................................2 Chapter 1: Using the Planner.............................................................................5 Chapter 2: About the TOEFL iBT® Test...............................................................11 Chapter 3: Speaking...........................................................................................14 Chapter 4: Reading............................................................................................21 Chapter 5: Listening...........................................................................................26 Chapter 6: Writing..............................................................................................31 Chapter 7: Test Day and Beyond.......................................................................38 Appendix 1: Sample Questions..........................................................................42 Appendix 2: Sample Score Report.....................................................................75 Appendix 3: Scoring Guides—Speaking............................................................77 Appendix 4: Scoring Guides—Writing................................................................80 Appendix 5: Sample Independent Writing Topics..............................................83 Appendix 6: Speaking and Writing Score Conversion Charts...........................85

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

Foreword Congratulations! You’ve made the right decision to take the TOEFL® test—the test that gives you the unmatched advantage over other English-language tests. There’s no question that the TOEFL test is the most widely accepted English-language test in the world—that’s why we say the TOEFL test can help you “go anywhere.” More than 8,500 colleges, universities and agencies in 130 countries accept TOEFL scores, including the U.S. and Canada as well as the U.K. and Australia. This gives you the flexibility of sending your test scores to any of these destinations. It’s no wonder more than 27 million people have taken the TOEFL test since it was introduced in 1964. The TOEFL test is also the most highly respected English-language test in the world. In fact, it’s the only test that simulates university classroom and campus life and was developed with the help of leading universities. By doing well on the TOEFL iBT ® test, you will prove you have the reading, listening, speaking and writing skills that universities are looking for—and show that you can effectively combine these skills to communicate your ideas in and out of the classroom. Preparing for the test will help you build the English skills you need to succeed in an academic setting and beyond.

TOEFL Test Prep Planner plan

eplan

That’s the purpose of this TOEFL Test Prep Planner—to help you understand how to prepare for the test effectively and to help you build the English skills you need to succeed. Chapter 1 provides you with a test preparation plan to use in the eight weeks leading up to your test date. Chapter 2 gives you general information about the test and scoring. Chapters 3 through 6 provide more information about the four sections of the test as well as activities you can do to build your skills. Chapter 7 tells you what to do on and after test day. We’ve also created a special website with useful links to accompany the Planner at www.ets.org/toefl/planner.

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

Sample Questions We know that working with sample questions is essential to preparing for the test, so the Planner includes examples of question types from each of the four skills sections. See Appendix 1. Test takers have told us that simulations of the test are also important, so the chart below shows you where to find sample questions that can simulate the test to varying degrees. Some of these samples are included on the Planner website, while others are available for purchase in order to enhance your preparation experience.

Source of Authentic Sample Questions Number of Questions

Source

At least one of each question type: Free Sample Questions

14 Reading 11 Listening 6 Speaking 2 Writing

TOEFL iBT ® Test Online Sampler ®

13 Reading 11 Listening 3 Speaking 1 Writing

The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test

Hundreds of practice questions and essay topics, including 3 full practice tests

TOEFL Practice Online

4 complete tests available, with same day scoring and feedback

®

Format

Simulation of the TOEFL iBT® Testing Experience

Download (with audio and sample Speaking responses)

Medium

Where Available

eplan www.ets.org/toefl/planner plan

Print

Low

Online

High

eBook or paper book with DVD

Medium

Online

High

Appendix 1: Sample questions SAMP Link to it from your online test registration profile

og www.ets.org/toefl/guide TPO www.ets.org/toeflpractice

Other free resources that you may find helpful on the path to your destination: • TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl • TOEFL Go Anywhere website at www.toeflgoanywhere.org • TOEFL® TV Channel at www.youtube.com/TOEFLtv

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

The Path to Your TOEFL Destination ®

You need to complete many steps to get to the college or university of your choice. We hope you’ve been progressing on the path to your TOEFL® Destination by completing Steps 1 through 4 below. If not, please work on completing these four steps now. Then move on to Step 5 to use this Planner to prepare and practice for the test.

Step

1

Choose your destinations If you don’t know where to apply, choose from the 8,500 institutions in 130 countries in the TOEFL® Destinations Directory at www.toeflgoanywhere.org.

Step

2

Know your destination deadlines and requirements Research application deadlines and score requirements for each of your university or college destinations. You can start your score requirement research with the TOEFL Destinations Directory and then contact the institution for more specific requirements. If you’re applying for postgraduate studies, find out if your institution requires the GRE ® or other tests. You can go to the GRE website at www.ets.org/gre for more information.

Step

3

Decide when and where to take the test Choose an available test date from among 4,500 testing locations in over 165 countries. Plan to take the TOEFL test at least two to three months before your institution’s application deadline.

Step

4

Register for the TOEFL iBT ® Test three to four months before your test date You can register online, by phone, or by mail. Go to www.toeflgoanywhere.org for more information on how to register.

Step

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Prepare and practice Use this TOEFL Test Prep Planner and follow the test preparation plan during the eight weeks leading up to your test date.

TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

chapter

1

Using the Planner

You’ve been studying English for some time now, so you’ve developed a level of proficiency in your reading, listening, speaking and writing skills. Now you’ll want to make sure you’re familiar with the test format and that you’re ready to do your best. This Planner gives you test information, sample questions and activities to build your skills, and much more.

To supplement the Planner materials, we encourage you to purchase these additional resources: Get complete tests on TOEFL® Practice Online at www.ets.org/toeflpractice. TOEFL Practice Online allows you to experience the real test and get same day scores and feedback. The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test at www.ets.org/toefl/guide. This book provides practice with hundreds of real TOEFL questions and has a CD-ROM with three full-length, authentic practice tests. It is available in both eBook and print formats.

Getting Started It’s important that you surround yourself with English and use it as much as possible between now and test day. Be sure to keep in mind that memorizing and cramming aren’t good ways to prepare for the TOEFL test. We’ve provided you with a plan to help you thoroughly prepare for the test in the eight weeks leading up to test day. The chart on the following pages indicates each week’s objective, tasks to complete and resources to help you complete them, as well as a checklist so you can check off each task as you complete it.

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner Chapter 1: Using the Planner Following is the actual order of the test sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing. The Planner leads the chapters with Speaking (with Reading, Listening and Writing following) because Speaking is often the skill students are least familiar and comfortable with; however, you may wish to change this order to work on improving your weakest skills first. WEEK 1 OBJECTIVES

Determine your target scores

TASKS AND RESOURCES • Determine your total score (and section scores if available) by researching the score requirements of your TOEFL® Destination institution at www.toeflgoanywhere.org.

COMPLETED Target scores: Reading Listening Speaking Writing Total

Familiarize yourself with the test

• Read Planner Chapter 2: About the TOEFL iBT ® Test. • eplan Review the Test Overview section on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner.

Learn from others’ test experiences

• Join online chat rooms, blogs or social networking sites.

View and experience the TOEFL iBT ® Test Online Sampler ®

• samp Access the Sampler from the “View Order” link on your profile when you register online.

Take a complete TOEFL practice test to establish your starting point



• Network with students who have taken the test.

tpo Go to www.ets.org/toeflpractice to purchase tests.

• Take one complete practice test now to establish your starting point. • Chart your scores in the checklist column. Add all of your section scores to calculate your total score. Convert your ratings on the Speaking and Writing sections to scaled scores by using the conversion chart in Appendix 6.

My scores: Reading Listening Speaking Writing Total

Purchase The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test



og The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test includes hundreds of TOEFL passages, questions and topics from previous tests. It includes a CD-ROM with complete practice tests.

• Purchase the book online at www.ets.org/toefl/guide or from your local bookstore in eBook or print format.

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TOEFL ®

Chapter 1: Using the Planner

WEEK 2 OBJECTIVES

TASKS AND RESOURCES

Learn about the Speaking section

• Read Planner Chapter 3: Speaking.

View and experience sample Speaking questions

• See sample Speaking questions in Planner Appendix 1.

COMPLETED

Test Prep

Planner

Reading as much as possible in English is an essential part of building your reading skills. Go to www.lexile.com/toefl for a list of books that are associated with TOEFL iBT® skill levels.

• Review Speaking Scoring Guides in Planner Appendix 3 to understand what score levels mean. • eplan Listen to sample responses and view raters’ comments on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner to help you identify your current level and understand what a response at your desired level is like. Refer to the Scoring Guides as you listen.

Practice your Speaking skills

• Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from Chapter 3 (pages 17–20) to work on your Speaking skills. •

og Use the Speaking chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 4) for more practice.

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

WEEK 3 OBJECTIVES

TASKS AND RESOURCES

Learn about the Reading section

• Read Planner Chapter 4: Reading.

View and experience sample Reading questions

• eplan Review sample Reading questions in Planner Appendix 1 and experience them on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner.

Practice your Reading skills

• Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from Chapter 4 (pages 23–25) to work on your Reading skills. •

og Use the Reading chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 2) for more practice.

COMPLETED

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner Chapter 1: Using the Planner

WEEK 4 OBJECTIVES

TASKS AND RESOURCES

Learn about the Listening section

• Read Planner Chapter 5: Listening.

View and experience sample Listening questions

• eplan Review sample Listening questions in Planner Appendix 1 and experience them on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner.

Practice your Listening skills

• Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from Chapter 5 (pages 28–30) to work on your Listening skills. •

og Use the Listening chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 3) for more practice.

COMPLETED

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

WEEK 5 OBJECTIVES

TASKS AND RESOURCES

Learn about the Writing section

• Read Planner Chapter 6: Writing.

View and experience sample Writing questions

• See sample Writing questions in Planner Appendix 1.

COMPLETED

• Review Writing Scoring Guides in Planner Appendix 4 to understand what score levels mean. • eplan Read sample responses and raters’ comments in Appendix 1 to help you identify your current level and understand what a response at your desired level is like. Refer to the Scoring Guides as you read.

Practice your Writing skills

• Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from Chapter 6 (pages 34–37) to work on your Writing skills. • og Use the Writing chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 5) for more practice.

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Chapter 1: Using the Planner Planner

WEEK 6 OBJECTIVES

TASKS AND RESOURCES

Planning for test day

• Read Planner Chapter 7: Test Day and Beyond and gather the documents you will need to take with you.

Take a complete TOEFL practice test to measure your progress



og Take a complete practice test in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test. Use the instructions in the Guide to calculate your Reading and Listening scaled scores.

• Time yourself for each section and try to simulate the test setting.

Get evaluations for Speaking and Writing

• Ask a teacher or tutor to evaluate your Speaking responses to the practice test using the Scoring Guides in Appendix 3 of the Planner. Use the conversion charts in Appendix 6 to convert the ratings to a scaled score.

COMPLETED

My scores: Reading Listening

My scores: Speaking Writing

• Ask a teacher or tutor to evaluate your Writing responses to the practice test using the Scoring Guides in Appendix 4 of the Planner. Use the conversion charts in Appendix 6 to convert the ratings to a scaled score.

Practice more on your weakest skills

• Compare your scores to your first test in Week 1. Decide which skills to focus on. • Review the Planner chapters that correspond to your weakest skills. • Complete three additional activities for each of your weakest skills. •

og Use Chapters 2 through 5 of The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test for more practice.

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3

WEEK 7 OBJECTIVES

Take a second complete TOEFL practice test to establish your readiness for test day

TASKS AND RESOURCES •

tpo Take a second complete practice test online at www.ets.org/toeflpractice. Add all of your section scores to calculate your total score. Convert your ratings on the Speaking and Writing sections to scaled scores by using the conversion chart in Appendix 6.

COMPLETED My scores: Reading Listening Speaking Writing Total

• Stay in Timed Mode as much as possible to simulate the test setting. • Review the directions for each section as you go through the practice test. • Compare these scores to the scores on your online practice test from Week 2 to Week 7. Decide which of the four skills to focus on.

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

Chapter 1: Using the Planner

Continue preparing

• Focus on improving your weakest skills using the Planner and The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test.

WEEK 8 OBJECTIVES

TASKS AND RESOURCES

Continue preparing

• Focus on improving your weakest skills using the Planner and The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test.

Take another practice test



og Take another complete practice test in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test. Use the instructions in the Guide to calculate your Reading and Listening scaled scores.

COMPLETED

My scores: Reading Listening

• Time yourself for each section and try to simulate the test setting.

Get evaluations for Speaking and Writing

• Ask a teacher or tutor to evaluate your Speaking responses to the practice test using the Scoring Guides in Appendix 3 of the Planner. Use the conversion charts in Appendix 6 to convert the ratings to a scaled score. • Ask a teacher or tutor to evaluate your Writing responses to the practice test using the Scoring Guides in Appendix 4 of the Planner. Use the conversion charts in Appendix 6 to convert the ratings to a scaled score.

Gather your documents

• Review Planner Chapter 7: Test Day and Beyond. • You’ll need a photo ID and your Registration Confirmation. Check with your TOEFL Test Resource Centre or www.ets.org/toefl/id for ID requirements in your country. • Return to your online registration profile and print out your confirmation. Check for any changes in your testing details. • Get directions to your testing site and make transportation plans.

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My scores: Speaking Writing

TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

chapter

2

About the TOEFL iBT Test ®

The TOEFL iBT ® test measures the English language skills important for effective communication in an academic setting. It consists of four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing. The entire test is about four hours long, and all sections are taken on the same day. The TOEFL iBT test uses integrated tasks that require test takers to combine skills just as they would in a real academic setting. The integrated questions ask test takers to: • read, listen and then speak in response to a question • listen and then speak in response to a question • read, listen and then write in response to a question

Test Format The following chart shows the possible number of questions and the timing for each section of the test. The time limit for each section varies according to the number of questions. Every test contains either a longer Reading section or a longer Listening section. Test Section

Number of Questions

Timing

Reading

3–4 passages, 12–14 questions each

60–80 minutes

Listening

4–6 lectures, 6 questions each 2–3 conversations, 5 questions each

60–90 minutes

BREAK

10 minutes

Speaking

6 tasks: 2 independent and 4 integrated

20 minutes

Writing

1 integrated task 1 independent task

20 minutes 30 minutes

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner Chapter 2: About the TOEFL iBT® Test

Test Administration • The TOEFL iBT® test is administered via computer from a secure Internet-based network. • Instructions for answering questions are given with each section. Test takers can take notes throughout the entire test. At the end of testing, all notes are collected and destroyed to ensure test security. • For the Speaking section, test takers wear headphones and speak into a microphone. Responses are digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network where three to six human raters score the responses. • For the Writing section, test takers type their responses. Responses are sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network, where they are rated by four raters—two human raters for the integrated task, one human rater and one e-rater ® for the independent task. (With e-rater, your responses are scored by the computer.) • All human raters are trained and certified by ETS and are continuously monitored throughout the day each time they rate. • Scores are reported both online and by mail.

About Test Scores Score Scales The TOEFL iBT test provides scores in four skill areas: Reading 0–30 Listening 0–30 Speaking 0–30 Writing 0–30 Total Score 0–120 (The total score is the sum of the four section scores.)

Score Reports The score reports provide information about your readiness to participate and succeed in academic studies in an English-speaking setting. Score reports include: • four skill scores • total score Scores are reported online approximately ten days after the test. You can view your scores online free of charge. Paper copies are mailed shortly after the scores are posted online if you opted to receive a hard copy. Please see Appendix 2 for a sample examinee score report.

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Chapter 2: About the TOEFL iBT Test Planner ®

Colleges, universities and agencies also can view your scores online and/or receive paper score reports when you have selected them as score recipients. You can do this free of charge for up to four score recipients when you register, or you can do it after the test for a small fee. See Chapter 7 for more information.

Score Requirements Each institution sets its own requirements for TOEFL iBT® scores. These minimums depend on factors such as the applicant’s field of study, the level of study (undergraduate or graduate), whether the applicant will be a teaching assistant and whether the institution offers English as a Second Language support for its students. ETS has collected the score requirements of many TOEFL® Destination institutions. For your convenience, these are included in the TOEFL Destinations Directory at www.toeflgoanywhere.org. However, we advise you to check with your particular program or department at your target destination to find out if they have any special score requirements.

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

chapter

3

Speaking

Academic Speaking Skills The Speaking section measures your ability to speak English effectively in academic settings, during class as well as outside the classroom. The tasks in this section resemble the real-life situations that students encounter: • During a class, students are expected to respond to questions, participate in academic discussions, summarize what they read and hear, and express their views on topics under discussion. • Outside the classroom, students participate in casual conversations, express their opinions and communicate with people in such places as the bookstore, the library, the cafeteria and the housing office.

Speaking Section Description In the Speaking section, you will be asked to speak on a variety of topics that draw on personal experience, campus-based situations and academic content. The Speaking section is approximately 20 minutes long and includes six questions. The first two questions are called Independent Speaking Tasks because they require you to draw entirely on your own ideas, opinions and experiences when you respond. The other four questions are called Integrated Speaking Tasks because they require you to integrate your English-language skills—listening and speaking, or listening, reading and speaking—just as you must during class and outside the classroom.

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TOEFL ®

Chapter 3: Speaking

Test Prep

Planner

Speaking Task Types TASK TYPE

TASK DESCRIPTION

TIMING

Independent Tasks 1. Personal Preference

2. Choice

This question asks you to express and defend a personal choice from a given category—for example, important people, places, events or activities that you enjoy.

Preparation time: 15 seconds

This question asks you to make and defend a personal choice between two contrasting behaviors or courses of action.

Preparation time: 15 seconds

Response time: 45 seconds

Response time: 45 seconds

Integrated Tasks Read/Listen/Speak 3. Campus Situation

• A reading passage (75–100 words) presents a campus-related issue.

Preparation time: 30 seconds

Topic: Fit and Explain

• A listening passage (60–80 seconds; 150–180 words) comments on the issue in the reading passage.

Response time: 60 seconds

• The question asks you to summarize the speaker’s opinion within the context of the reading passage. 4. Academic Course Topic: General/Specific

• A reading passage (75–100 words) broadly Preparation time: defines a term, process or idea from an academic 30 seconds subject. Response time: • An excerpt from a lecture (60–90 seconds; 150–220 words) provides examples and specific 60 seconds information to illustrate the term, process or idea from the reading passage. • The question asks you to combine and convey important information from the reading passage and the lecture excerpt. Listen/Speak

5. Campus Situation Topic: Problem/Solution

6. Academic Course Topic: Summary

• The listening passage (60–90 seconds; 180–220 words) is a conversation about a student-related problem and two possible solutions.

Preparation time: 20 seconds

• The question asks you to demonstrate an understanding of the problem and to express an opinion about solving the problem.

Response time: 60 seconds

• The listening passage (90–120 seconds; 230–280 words) is an excerpt from a lecture that explains a term or concept and gives concrete examples to illustrate that term or concept.

Preparation time: 20 seconds

• The question asks you to summarize the lecture and demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the examples and the overall topic.

TOTAL

Response time: 60 seconds

20 minutes

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TOEFL ®

Test Prep

Planner

Chapter 3: Speaking Speaking Responses Like all the other sections of the TOEFL iBT ® test, the Speaking section is delivered via computer. For all Speaking tasks, you’ll use a headset with a microphone.

For Speaking questions that involve listening, you’ll hear short spoken passages or conversations. For Speaking questions that involve reading, you’ll read short written passages on your computer screen. You can take notes throughout the Speaking section and use your notes when you respond to the questions. Your responses will be recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network where they will be scored by experienced raters.

How Speaking Responses Are Scored Your responses will be scored holistically. This means that raters listen for various features in your response and assign a single score based on the overall skill you display in your answer. Although scoring criteria vary somewhat depending on the question, the raters generally will be listening for the following features in your answer: • Delivery: How clear and fluid your speech is, including good pronunciation, natural pacing and natural-sounding intonation patterns. • Language Use: How effectively you use grammar and vocabulary to convey your ideas.

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TOEFL ®

Chapter 3: Speaking • Topic Development: How fully you answer the question and how coherently you present your ideas. Good responses generally use all or most of the time allotted, and the relationship between ideas and the progression from one idea to the next is clear and easy to follow. For more detailed criteria, see the Speaking Scoring Guides in Appendix 3. These will help you better understand how responses are evaluated. It’s important to note that raters don’t expect your response to be perfect, and high-scoring responses may contain occasional errors and minor lapses in any of the three areas described above.

Speaking Skills Practice The best way to practice speaking is with native speakers of English. In some countries, you can find English-speaking tutors or assistants to help you with conversation skills and overall communication skills. If you can’t do that, find a friend to practice speaking with every day.

Targeted Activities Independent Speaking Try the following activities to build the skills you’ll need for the Independent Speaking tasks: • Make a list of topics that are familiar to you and practice speaking about them. The topics can be academic or nonacademic (sports, hobbies, travel, etc.). • Think for 20 seconds about what you did yesterday, then recount your experiences in one minute. Remember to use the past tense of verbs and use connecting words and phrases, such as “first,” “then” and “while I was.” • Think for 20 seconds about what you plan to do tomorrow, then talk about it for one minute. • Think of a story with which you are familiar. Tell the story to several different people. Try to tell the story faster each time.

Test Prep

Planner

Complete these Week 2 tasks and update the checklist on page 7. • See sample Speaking questions in Planner Appendix 1 and experience them on the Planner website at www.ets.org/toefl/planner. • Review Speaking Scoring Guides in Planner Appendix 3 to understand what score levels mean. • eplan Listen to sample responses and view raters’ comments on the Planner website to help you identify your current level and your desired level.

General Speaking Practice • Practice using language for giving opinions, language for describing problems and solutions, and language to compare and contrast. • Learn to use idiomatic and informal speech naturally and appropriately by listening to native English speakers and trying to mimic their expressions. • Practice using contractions, such as it’s, there’s, I’m and so on, in order to sound more natural when speaking. • Work on pronunciation, including word stress, intonation patterns and pauses. There are a number of products and websites that can help you develop pronunciation skills, including Pronunciation in English from AmEnglish.com® and ETS.

• Collect a number of pictures from magazines and newspapers. Look at each picture, then describe it in one minute. Describe the same thing more than once, using different adjectives and adding details. Go anywhere from here.

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Planner

Chapter 3: Speaking

About note taking: You are permitted to take notes on the reading and listening material in the Integrated Speaking tasks on the TOEFL iBT® test. Because the reading and listening materials are very brief, taking notes may not be necessary. However, notetaking practice will help you prepare for the test.

• State an opinion or a preference for something familiar and present clear, detailed reasons for your choices. Use connecting words or phrases to help explain your opinion (for example, “the reason I prefer” or “this is important to me because”). • Make a recommendation about a topic of concern or interest to you and explain why your idea is the best way to proceed. • Think about topics related to student life (for example, the types of classes you enjoy taking or the best place to study). For each topic, write down two reasons to explain your preference and speak on this topic for one minute. • Write down topics on slips of paper. Each day, choose one randomly and practice giving a one-minute response. Repeat your responses to each topic two or three times to build fluency.

Targeted Activities Integrated Speaking These activities can help build the skills you’ll need for the Integrated Speaking tasks: • Listen to a talk on the National Geographic website at www.nationalgeographic.com/ and take notes. Then use your notes to give a summary of the talk to a friend and eventually record a one-minute oral summary. • Read an article or listen to a talk on an issue that interests you (for example, the environment). Prepare an outline for a one-minute opinion speech about the article or talk. Your outline should include your opinion, two points to support your opinion and one detail/reason to support each point. • Find campus newspaper articles on the Internet. After reading the articles, express your opinions about them to a friend. • Read a short article from a newspaper or a textbook. Write down two or three questions and then answer them orally. Eventually, record your answers to the questions. • Find a textbook in English that includes study questions at the end of each chapter. Practice answering the questions orally. Start by reading about subjects with which you’re familiar and later move on to less familiar subjects.

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TOEFL ®

Chapter 3: Speaking

Test Prep

Planner

• Find listening and reading material on the same topic. The material can contain similar or different views. The listening material can be a news report on a current topic on TV or radio, and the reading material can be a newspaper or Internet report. – Take notes or create lists of important points on the listening and reading material. – Do separate oral summaries of the information in the listening and reading material. Practice paraphrasing using different words and grammatical structures. – Combine the information from the reading and listening material and explain in writing how they relate. Later, practice explaining it orally using only your notes for reference. – State an opinion about the ideas and information presented in the reading and listening material and explain how they relate. – If the reading and/or listening material describes a problem, suggest and explain your own solution to the problem.

Practice Tips for the Speaking Section • When you practice for the TOEFL iBT® Speaking section, take 15 seconds to think about what you’re going to say before you speak. Write down a few key words and ideas and plan how you will organize your response. Don’t attempt to write down exactly what you’re going to say. It’s a waste of your time, and raters will be able to detect responses that are read and will give them a lower rating. • Record your responses and replay them. Evaluate your effort by asking yourself these questions: – Did I complete the task? – Did I speak clearly? – Did I make grammatical errors? – Did I use words correctly? – Did I organize my ideas clearly and appropriately? – Did I use the time effectively? – Did I speak too quickly or too slowly? – Did I pause too often? • Record your response another time a few days later. Compare these responses with your earlier responses. • Ask an English teacher or tutor to evaluate your recordings using the appropriate TOEFL iBT Speaking Scoring Guides from Appendix 3.

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Planner

Chapter 3: Speaking

Complete these Week 2 tasks and update the checklist on page 7. • Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from pages 17–20 to work on your Speaking skills. •

og

Use the Speaking chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 4) for more practice.

Group Speaking Activities Have fun trying these activities to practice your speaking skills with friends or a study group: • Make “note cards” with description prompts. For example, describe your favorite restaurant, your best friend or an ideal house. Put the cards face down, choose one and respond in 45 seconds. • Join a club whose members meet to converse in English about movies, music and travel. If a club doesn’t exist in your area, start one. Invite native English speakers to join you. • With a group, list opinion topics and write these on cards. Topics might include research papers vs. oral presentations, laptops vs. desktops, school uniforms vs. wearing regular clothes to school, and so on. Each person chooses a card, prepares a one-minute presentation and then presents to the group. The speaker must support his or her opinion with reasons. The group then can debate each topic. • Divide group members into pairs. Have each pair of partners choose a common problem college students face and brainstorm two solutions to the problem. They should prepare role-plays in which one person describes the problem and the other provides the solutions and indicates which solution he or she prefers and why. • Practice using transition words and phrases such as however, first, on the other hand and in contrast to help listeners follow your speech. With a group, write as many transitions as you can think of on cards. Each person must randomly choose one card and then create two sentences connected by the transition word on the card. You can use a timer and allow each person 30 seconds to respond. • Set up a discussion club with a group of friends. Each week, one member chooses a talk or a speech (available online or in audio or video form) and everyone in the group listens to it. When the group gets together, the leader for that week summarizes the talk/speech and leads a discussion on the topic.

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chapter

4

Reading

Academic Reading Skills The Reading section measures your ability to understand university-level academic texts and passages. In many academic settings around the world, students are expected to read and understand information from textbooks and other academic materials written in English. The following are three purposes for academic reading:

Reading to Find Information • Effectively scanning text for key facts and important information • Increasing reading fluency and rate

Basic Comprehension • Understanding the general topic or main idea, major points, important facts and details, vocabulary in context, and pronoun usage • Making inferences about what is implied in a passage

Reading to Learn • Recognizing the organization and purpose of a passage • Understanding relationships between ideas • Organizing information into a category chart or a summary in order to recall major points and important details • Inferring how ideas connect throughout the passage

Reading Section Description The TOEFL iBT ® Reading section includes three to four reading passages. There are 12 to 14 questions per passage. You have 60 to 80 minutes to answer all the questions in the section.

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Chapter 4: Reading Reading Passages

Complete these Week 3 tasks and update the checklist on page 7. • eplan Review sample Reading questions in Planner Appendix 1 and experience them on the Planner website at www.ets.org/toefl/planner.

TOEFL iBT® Reading passages are excerpts from university-level textbooks that would be used in introductions to a discipline or topic. The excerpts are changed as little as possible because the goal of the test is to assess how well you can read the kind of writing that is used in an academic environment. The passages will cover a variety of different subjects. You don’t need to be familiar with the topic of a passage. All the information you need to answer the questions will be in the passage itself. Often passages present information about the topic from more than one perspective or point of view. This is something you should note as you read because you’ll usually be asked at least one question that allows you to show that you have understood the general organization of the passage. You must read through or scroll to the end of each passage before receiving questions on that passage. Once the questions appear, the passage appears on the right side of the computer screen. The questions are on the left. (To see how they appear on screen, download the sample questions on the Planner website.)

Reading Question Formats There are three question formats in the Reading section: • Questions with four choices and a single answer in traditional multiple-choice format • Questions with four choices and a single answer that ask you to “insert a sentence” where it fits best in a passage • “Reading to learn” questions with more than four choices and more than one correct answer Each passage is accompanied by a “reading to learn” question. These questions test your ability to recognize how the passage is organized and to understand the relationships among facts and ideas in different parts of the passage. For these questions, you’re asked to sort information and place the text options provided into a category chart or summary. The summary questions are worth up to two points each. The chart questions are worth up to three points if there are five options presented, and up to four points if there are seven options presented.

Reading Skills Practice You can improve your reading skills in English by reading regularly, especially university textbooks or other materials that cover a variety of subject areas—such as sciences, social sciences, arts, business— and are written in an academic style.

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Chapter 4: Reading

Test Prep

Planner

The Internet is one of the best resources for reading material, but books, magazines or journals of any kind are very helpful as well. It’s best to include material that is more academic in style, the kind that would be found in university courses.

Reading as much as possible in English is an essential part of building your reading skills. Go to www.lexile.com/toefl for a list of books that are associated with TOEFL iBT® skill levels.

General Reading Activities You might try these general activities to practice your reading skills: • Increase your vocabulary by keeping a journal of new words: – Group word lists by academic subject areas—such as biology, geology, psychology—and create flash cards to review the words frequently. – Learn to recognize the meanings of prefixes, suffixes and common roots of words. • Study the organization of academic texts: – Look for the main ideas and the supporting details and pay attention to the relationship between them. Notice how the end of one sentence relates to the beginning of the next sentence. – Make a list of the important points of the passage and then write a summary of it. If the text is a comparison, be sure your summary reflects that. If the text argues two points of view, be sure both are reflected in your summary. • Work with a friend to improve your reading skills. You read an article from a journal or magazine and your friend reads a different article. Each person makes up five basic information questions (who, what, where, when, how and why). Exchange articles, read the new article and answer each other’s questions. • Read a Reading passage from The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test or from any academic text. Think about the main idea of each paragraph and then write a “headline” for each paragraph. The “headline” should be short (five to eight words) and it should capture the main idea of the paragraph. Then write a five- to sixsentence summary of the entire passage. • Make a copy of an article from a newspaper or from an academic text. Cut the text into paragraphs and then try to put the text back together. Look for words that give you clues about the ordering of the paragraphs to help you put the text back together. Go anywhere from here.

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Chapter 4: Reading • Work on increasing your reading speed. This can be done by timing yourself as you read. Read a short text (article or short reading from a text) once and record the time it takes you to read it. Then read it again and try to improve your reading speed. • Set up a book club with your classmates or friends. Have each person choose something for everyone to read. Set up a schedule and discuss one reading at each meeting. • Keep a reading log in which you write summaries or responses to texts you read.

The TOEFL iBT® Reading section does not measure summarizing skills, but learning to summarize reading passages will help you on the Speaking and Writing sections.

Targeted Activities Reading to Find Information Try these activities to practice for “Reading to Find Information” questions: • Scan passages to find and highlight key facts (dates, numbers, terms) and information. Look for capital letters, numbers and symbols, and special formatting (such as italics) as you scan. • Look for words in a passage that have the same meaning. Highlight each one with the same color marker. Then look at the way the writer used these words with similar meanings.

Targeted Activities Reading for Basic Comprehension Try these activities to practice for “Reading for Basic Comprehension” questions: • Practice skimming a passage quickly to get a general impression of the main idea instead of carefully reading each word and each sentence. Practice reading the introductory paragraph, the first sentences of paragraphs and the concluding paragraph to get the gist of a passage.

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Chapter 4: Reading

Test Prep

Planner

• Develop the ability to skim quickly and identify major points. After skimming a passage, read it again more carefully and write down the main idea, major points and important facts. • Choose some unfamiliar words in a passage and guess the meaning from the context (surrounding sentences). Then look the words up to confirm their meaning. • Underline all pronouns (for example: he, him, they, them, etc.) and identify the nouns to which they refer in the passage. • Paraphrase individual sentences in a passage. Then paraphrase entire paragraphs.

Targeted Activities Reading to Learn • Whenever you read, identify the passage type (cause/effect, compare/contrast, classification, problem/solution, description, narration). • Organize the information in the passage: – Make a list of the major points of the passage and the minor points that support them. – If the passage categorizes information, create a chart and place the information in appropriate categories. – Create an oral or written summary of the passage using the charts, lists and outlines.

Complete these Week 3 tasks and update the checklist on page 7. • Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from pages 23–25 to work on your Reading skills. •

og Use the Reading chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 2) for more practice.

About charts and the TOEFL iBT® Reading section: You won’t be asked to create charts on the test. Instead, a chart with possible answer choices will be provided and you’ll be asked to fill in the chart with the correct choices. By creating practice charts, however, you can practice categorizing information, and soon will be able to do so with ease.

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5

Listening

Academic Listening Skills The Listening section measures your ability to understand spoken English. In academic settings, you must be able to listen to lectures and conversations. Academic listening is typically done for one of the three following purposes:

Listening for Basic Comprehension • Comprehend the main idea, major points and important details related to the main idea

Listening for Pragmatic Understanding1 • Recognize a speaker’s attitude and degree of certainty • Recognize a speaker’s function or purpose

Connecting and Synthesizing2 Information • Recognize the organization of information presented • Understand the relationships between ideas presented (for example: compare/contrast, cause/effect or steps in a process) • Make inferences and draw conclusions based on what is implied in the material • Make connections among pieces of information in a conversation or lecture • Recognize topic changes in lectures and conversations, and recognize introductions and conclusions in lectures

Listening Section Description Listening material in the test includes academic lectures and conversations in which the speech sounds very natural. You can take notes on any listening material throughout the entire test.

1 2

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Pragmatic understanding: To understand a speaker’s purpose, attitude, degree of certainty, etc. Synthesize: To combine information from two or more sources

TOEFL ®

Chapter 5: Listening

Test Prep

Planner

Most of the questions that follow the lectures and conversations are traditional multiple-choice questions with four answer choices and a single correct answer. There are, however, some other types of questions: • Multiple-choice questions with more than one answer (for example: two answers out of four or more choices) • Questions that require you to put in order events or steps in a process • Questions that require you to match objects or text to categories in a table

Listening Material

Number of Questions

4–6 lectures, 3–5 minutes long

6 questions per lecture

2–3 conversations, about 3 minutes long

5 questions per conversation

Timing 60–90 minutes total

Academic Lectures The lectures in the TOEFL iBT ® test reflect the kind of listening and speaking that occurs in the classroom. In some of the lectures, the professor does all or almost all of the talking, with an occasional comment by a student. In other lectures, the professor may engage the students in discussion by asking questions that are answered by the students. The photos that accompany the lectures indicate whether one person or several people will be speaking.

Conversations in an Academic Setting The conversations in the TOEFL iBT test may take place during an office meeting with a professor or teaching assistant, or during a service encounter with university staff. The contents of the office conversations are generally academic in nature or related to course requirements. Service encounters could involve conversations about a housing payment, registering for a class or requesting information at the library. The photos that accompany the conversations help you imagine the setting and the roles of the speakers.

Complete these Week 4 tasks and update the checklist on page 8. • eplan Review sample Listening questions in Planner Appendix 1 and experience them on the Planner website at www.ets.org/toefl/planner.

Listening Skills Practice Listening to the English language frequently and reading a wide variety of academic materials is the best way to increase vocabulary and improve listening skills. Watching movies and television shows and listening to the radio provide excellent opportunities to build listening skills. You are typically more engaged when you listen to entertaining material. Movies, television shows and live interviews are especially useful because they also provide visual reinforcement and cues. Go anywhere from here.

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Chapter 5: Listening Audiotapes and CDs of books, lectures and presentations are equally valuable and are available at libraries and bookstores. Also, many public libraries and most universities have their public lectures available online. Lectures with transcripts are particularly helpful. The Internet is a great resource for listening material—visit websites such as www.npr.org, www.cnn.com/services/podcasting, www.audiobooksforfree.com, www.youthradio.org, www.bbc.co.uk/radio and www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish.

General Listening Activities You might try these general activities to build your listening skills: • Listen to different kinds of material on a variety of topics, of increasing length and difficulty. – Start with recordings on familiar topics and gradually progress to topics that are new to you. – First, listen to conversations, television shows and movies, and then listen to programs with academic content, such as NPR and BBC broadcasts. Start with short segments and progress to longer segments. – Listen several times to each recording: o For beginners, listen first with English subtitles, if they are available. Then, without subtitles, listen for the main ideas and key details. o Listen again to understand the connections between ideas, the structure of the talk and/or the speakers’ attitudes and to distinguish fact from opinion. – Listen actively: o Take notes as you listen for main ideas and important details. Write down key words only, not every word.

The Listening section does not measure summarizing skills, but practicing summarizing is useful for the integrated tasks in the Speaking and Writing sections.

o Keep a log of the new words and expressions you hear. Check the spelling and meaning in a dictionary. o Ask yourself about the basic information presented in the recording (Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?). o Make predictions about what you will hear next. o Use your notes to summarize what you’ve heard.

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– Copy a script from an online news story, lecture or talk, movie or podcast. Delete or cover every fifth word on the script. Listen to the recording, and try to write in the missing words. Go anywhere from here.

TOEFL ®

Chapter 5: Listening

Test Prep

Planner

– Listen to the news or a lecture online and read the script at the same time. Listen closely and highlight the stressed words in the script. Try to identify why the speaker stresses specific words. – Listen to a portion of a lecture or talk and create a list of important points. Use the list to write a brief summary. Gradually listen to the entire lecture and combine the summaries for each part into a summary of the whole lecture.

Targeted Activities Listening for Pragmatic Understanding • As you listen to movies, television shows and lectures: – Think about what each speaker hopes to accomplish. What is the purpose of the lecture or conversation? For example, is the speaker apologizing, complaining, inviting or making suggestions? – Notice each speaker’s style. Is the language formal or casual? How certain does each speaker sound? Is the speaker’s voice calm or emotional? What does the speaker’s tone of voice tell you? – Notice the speaker’s degree of certainty. How sure is the speaker about the information? Does the speaker’s tone of voice indicate something about his/her degree of certainty? – Pay attention to the way stress and intonation patterns are used to convey meaning. Replay segments multiple times, listening for shades of meaning. This will help you understand a speaker’s point of view. – Listen for changes in topic. What transitions are used? – Listen for repetitions of ideas and paraphrases. How do speakers reinforce their points?

Vocabulary tip: Don’t memorize low-frequency technical vocabulary. These words are usually defined within a text or listening passage. Focus on learning high-frequency language that crosses all disciplines.

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Chapter 5: Listening Targeted Activities Listening to Connect and Synthesize Ideas

Complete these Week 4 tasks and update the checklist on page 8. • Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from pages 17–20 to work on your Listening skills. •

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Use the Listening chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 3) for more practice.

• As you are listening to recorded lectures or talks: – Think about how what you’re hearing is organized. Listen for the signal words that indicate the introduction, major steps or ideas, examples and the conclusion or summary. – Identify the relationships between ideas. Possible relationships include cause/effect, compare/contrast and steps in a process. – Listen for transitions that show connections and relationships between ideas. How do speakers introduce and organize their points? – Predict what information or idea will be expressed next. – Stop the recording at various points. Summarize what you just heard or what you’ve heard up to that point. – Practice listening for and comparing two speakers’ viewpoints. Which speaker supports the idea and which is against it? What words do speakers use to support their ideas? Are the words mainly positive or negative?

Vocabulary tip: Understanding phrasal verbs and common idioms will help you with the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT® test because phrasal verbs and idioms are often used in informal conversations.

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chapter

6

Writing

Academic Writing Skills The Writing section measures your ability to write in English in an academic setting. In all academic situations where writing in English is required, you must be able to present your ideas in a clear, well-organized manner. Often you’ll need to write a paper or an essay response on an exam about what you’ve been learning in class. This requires combining information you’ve heard in lectures with what you’ve read in textbooks or other materials. For this type of writing—often referred to as integrated writing—you must be able to: • Take notes on what you hear and read, and use your notes to organize information before writing • Summarize, paraphrase and cite information accurately from source material • Write about the ways the information you heard relates to the information you read You also must be able to write essays that express and support your opinions. In this type of writing—known as independent writing—you express an opinion and support it based on your own knowledge and experience. For example, you may be asked to write an essay about a controversial issue. You would use past personal experience to support your position.

Planning before you write is an important skill to develop. In your university or college, you will have to write papers and essay exams that will require such skills.

Writing Section Description The total time for the Writing section is 50 minutes. You’ll write responses to two writing tasks: an Integrated Writing Task and an Independent Writing Task. The Integrated Writing Task comes first because it requires some listening and you’ll be wearing headphones. When you finish the Integrated Writing Task, which takes about 20 minutes, you may take the headphones off to work on the Independent Writing Task. You’ll then have 30 minutes to complete the Independent Writing Task. Go anywhere from here.

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Chapter 6: Writing You’ll type your responses on the computer keyboard, and then your responses will be sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network.

Task Type

Description

Task 1 Integrated Writing Task

• You read a short text of about 230–300 words (reading time: three minutes) on an academic topic.

Read/Listen/Write

• You may take notes on the reading passage. • The reading passage disappears from the screen during the lecture that follows. It reappears when you begin writing so you can refer to it as you work. • You listen to a speaker discuss the same topic from a different perspective. The listening passage is about 230–300 words long (listening time: two minutes). • The listening passage provides additional information that relates to points made in the reading passage. You may take notes on the listening passage. • You write a summary in connected English prose of important points made in the listening passage and explain how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. Suggested response length is 150–225 words; however, there is no penalty for writing more as long as it is in response to the task presented.

Task 2 Independent Writing Writing from Experience and Knowledge

• You write an essay that states, explains and supports your opinion on an issue. An effective essay will usually contain a minimum of 300 words; however, you may write more if you wish. • You must support your opinions or choices rather than simply list personal preferences or choices. • Typical essay questions begin with statements such as: –– Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use reasons and specific details to support your answer. –– Some people believe [X]. Other people believe [Y]. Which of these two positions do you prefer/agree with? Give reasons and specific details.

How Writing Responses Are Scored Your responses to all writing tasks are sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. The responses are rated by four raters—two human raters for the integrated task and by one human rater and one e-rater ® for the independent task. (With e-rater, your responses are scored by the computer.) Your responses are rated on a scale of zero to five according to the Writing Scoring Guides in Appendix 4. Your average score on the two writing tasks is converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30. (See Appendix 6 for a chart that helps you convert the average score on your responses to a scaled score.) • Your response to the Integrated Writing Task is scored on the quality of your writing (organization, appropriate and precise use of grammar, and vocabulary) and the completeness and accuracy of the content. • The independent writing essay is scored on the overall quality of your writing: development, organization, and appropriate and precise use of grammar and vocabulary. It doesn’t matter whether you agree or disagree with the topic—the raters are trained to accept all varieties of opinions.

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Chapter 6: Writing

Test Prep

Planner

For both of the writing tasks, the raters recognize that your response is a first draft. You’re not expected to produce a comprehensive essay about a specialized topic. You can receive a high score with an essay that contains some errors.

Writing Skills Practice General Writing Activities Be sure you have developed fundamental writing skills before you progress to more targeted practice. Check to see if you can do the following: • Learn the conventions of spelling, punctuation and paragraph creation. • Study the organization of good paragraphs and essays. A good paragraph discusses ONE main idea. This idea is usually written in the first sentence, which is called the topic sentence. In essay writing, each paragraph should discuss one aspect of the main idea of the essay.

Complete these Week 5 tasks and update the checklist on page 8. • See sample Writing questions in Planner Appendix 1. • Review Writing Scoring Guides in Planner Appendix 4 to understand what score levels mean. • eplan Read sample responses and raters’ comments in Appendix 1 to help you identify your current level and understand what a response at your desired level is like. Refer to the Scoring Guides as you read.

• Before you write, think about verb tenses that logically fit your topic. Are you writing about something in the past? Then you might use the simple past, present and past perfect, past continuous—tenses that naturally fit together. • Read your writing three or four times; each time, check for a different thing. Make a checklist of errors you commonly make (for example: verb tenses, run-on sentences, subject-verb agreement). • Reread your writing and circle common, uninteresting expressions (for example: get, nice, things, stuff). In your second draft, replace these with stronger words and phrases (for example: obtain, pleasant, objects, possessions). See how many alternate words you can come up with. • Practice using transitions to show the relationship between ideas. Use words and phrases such as “on the one hand” or “in conclusion” to create a clear structure for your response. • Practice typing on a QWERTY keyboard, the type of computer keyboard used in English-speaking countries. The name comes from the first six letters in the top row of the keyboard.

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Chapter 6: Writing

Vocabulary tip: Expand your vocabulary by doing crossword puzzles and other word games. These are available on sites like http://www.yourdictionary.com. This website also has a “Word of the Day.”

Targeted Activities Independent Writing Try the following activities to build the skills you’ll need for the Independent Writing tasks: • Make a list of familiar topics and write essays about them. Practice taking 30 minutes to plan, write and revise each essay. – Think about and list all ideas related to a topic or task before writing. This is also called “prewriting.” – Identify one main idea and create a list of some major points to support that idea. Develop the essay by using appropriate explanations and details. – When your essay is complete, reread what you have written. Make sure your supporting ideas are clearly related to your main point and are developed in detail. • Read a sample essay response from Appendix 1 or in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test and make an outline of the essay. Include the main idea and supporting points for each paragraph. Paraphrase the key points in your own words and summarize the essay you read. • Read articles and essays written by professional writers that express opinions about an issue, such as a social, environmental or educational issue. Identify the writer’s opinion(s). Notice how the writer addresses possible objections to the opinion(s).

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Chapter 6: Writing

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Planner

Practice Tips for the Writing Section • Use the sample Independent Writing topics in Appendix 5 of the Planner and Chapter 5 of The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test to practice writing for the TOEFL iBT ® test. Time yourself, taking 30 minutes to read the question, plan your work and write your essay. Review your essay and ask yourself these questions: – Did I complete the task? – Did I write clearly? – Did I make grammatical errors? – Did I use words correctly? – Did I organize my ideas clearly and coherently? – Did I use the time effectively? • When practicing the Integrated Writing response: – Plan your time carefully (for example, two to three minutes to plan, 15 minutes to write, two to three minutes to edit). – Start your response with a strong topic statement that clearly shows the main point of the lecture. – Show how the points made in the lecture relate to specific points made in the reading. Do not simply summarize the reading and the writing. • Ask an English teacher or tutor to evaluate your essay using the appropriate TOEFL iBT Writing Scoring Guides from Appendix 4 and to give you feedback.

Targeted Writing Activities Paraphrasing In your academic classes, you must be careful never to plagiarize (copy another writer’s words without acknowledging the source). Paraphrasing is an important skill because you are expressing ideas about something from source material in your own words. Practice paraphrasing words, phrases, sentences and entire paragraphs frequently using the following activities: • Learn to find synonyms. Pick 10–15 words or phrases in a passage and quickly think of synonyms without looking them up in a dictionary or thesaurus. Go anywhere from here.

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Chapter 6: Writing • Practice writing a sentence using the noun form of a word and then convey the same meaning using the verb form. • Try paraphrasing two or three sentences. Later, move on to paraphrasing paragraphs and longer passages. • Write a paraphrase of a reading passage using only your notes. If you haven’t taken notes, write the paraphrase without looking at the original text. Check your paraphrase to make sure it’s factually accurate and that you’ve used different words and grammatical structures.

Vocabulary tip: Randomly choose a word from your vocabulary log. Define the word, use it in a sentence, and see how many words with similar meanings you can list.

Targeted Activities Integrated Writing You can do these activities to build the skills you’ll need for the Integrated Writing tasks: • Find a textbook in English that includes questions about the material at the end of a chapter and practice writing answers to the questions. • Read academic articles and listen to related lectures. – Take notes in your own language and then take notes in English. – Make a list of the major points and important details. – Use your list to write a summary of the major points and important details. Be sure to paraphrase using different words and grammatical structures. – Ask your teacher to review your writing and help you correct your errors. – Gradually decrease the time it takes you to read the material and write these summaries. • Practice finding main points by listening to recorded lectures or talks online. Stop the recording about every 30 seconds to write out a short summary of what you heard. Replay the recording to check your summary.

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Chapter 6: Writing

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Planner

• Read two articles on the same topic. Write a summary of each, and then explain the ways in which they are similar and the ways in which they are different. • Listen to a recorded news story online. In a newspaper or online, read another story on the same news item. The material can provide similar or different views. – Take notes on the material.

Complete these Week 5 tasks and update the checklist on page 8.

– Summarize both the written and spoken portions. Clearly identify which source you are referring to throughout your summary.

• Pick three general activities and three targeted activities from pages 34–37 to work on your Writing skills.

– Combine the information and discuss how the materials relate. Explain how the ideas are similar, how one idea expands upon another, or how the ideas differ or contradict each other.



og

Use the Writing chapter in The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test (Chapter 5) for more practice.

• Watch a movie with a friend or go to a restaurant together. Ask your friend’s opinion of the movie or restaurant; take some notes. Read an online review of the same movie or restaurant. Write a response comparing your friend’s opinions with the online review. • Read an opinion or editorial piece from a newspaper. Interview a friend, classmate, family member or teacher on the same topic. Write a response comparing your interview with the written response.

Be sure to paraphrase! On the TOEFL iBT® test, you will receive a score of zero if you copy words from the reading passage. • Practice integrating all four language skills. – Listen to an online lecture and take notes. Then prepare both an oral and a written summary. Find and read a text on the same topic. Take notes. Then prepare both an oral and a written summary of the lecture and reading. Later, discuss the reading and lecture with a friend. Prepare a vocabulary list of the important words on the topic. – Read an essay from an academic text or from The Official Guide to the TOEFL® Test. Take notes on the main and supporting details. Use your notes to summarize the essay orally. Record your summary. Then listen to your summary to make sure you have included all the main points of the essay. Finally, write your own essay on the same topic.

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7

Test Day and Beyond

You’ve registered and practiced, and now you’re ready to take the TOEFL iBT ® test. Here are some tips that will help make your test day go smoothly: • Set your alarm early. Give yourself plenty of time to get ready. If you have trouble getting up, ask a friend to give you a call. • Get plenty of rest. Don’t stay up late, and avoid caffeine the night before the test. Try to stay relaxed. • Eat a good meal. Don’t skip a meal on test day. Eat something with protein and a piece of fruit to help your mind stay alert.

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TOEFL Test Test Day Day Tips TOEFL ®®

You’ve practiced hard and now you are ready for your big day. Here is some information to prepare you for the testing experience itself.

1

Plan Your Trip

Plan your trip to the testing site: Check the identification (ID) requirements for your testing location at www.ets.org/toefl/id. Determine the best way to travel and how long it takes to get to the testing site. You need to arrive 30 minutes before your scheduled start time. The day before your test, check your online profile for any details that may  have changed, such as testing room or start time. Make sure to bring your photo ID and registration confirmation with you.

2

The Testing Site TOEFL

3

Your Testing Station TOEFL

Arriving at the testing site: You will need to present acceptable ID and your registration confirmation to enter the testing site. A photo opportunity: Your picture will be taken and displayed at your test station and on your official score report.

Your testing station:  You will be assigned a seat a few minutes before your start time. No electronic devices or food are allowed in the testing room. For other restrictions, check the website at www.ets.org/toefl. You can use the restroom at any time, but remember — ­ the clock does not stop for your test.

4

Break

Speaking

Writing

60 – 90 minutes,

Mandatory

20 minutes,

50 minutes,

34 – 51 questions.

10-minute break

6 tasks.

2 tasks.

Listen to lectures or a classroom discussion, then respond to questions.

for all test takers.

Using a microphone, speak about familiar topics, and discuss material you read about and listen to.

Read a passage, listen to a recording and then write your response (keyboard typing).

Reading

Listening

60 – 80 minutes, 36 – 56 questions. Read passages, then respond to questions.

The TOEFL Test

Total length of the test:

4 hours

For more information, visit www.ets.org/toefl.

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Chapter 7: Test Day and Beyond What To Expect on Test Day General Test-Taking Tips Here are some test-taking strategies to follow during the test: • Know the directions in each section before the test by taking a practice test. This will help you avoid wasting time during the test. • Click Help to review the directions only when absolutely necessary—the test clock doesn’t stop when Help is used. • Carefully read each question. Some questions ask for more than one answer. Some questions have “not,” so they ask about a negative situation. • Don’t panic. Concentrate on the current question only. Don’t think about how you answered or should have answered other questions. • Avoid spending too much time on any one question. If you’ve thought about a question and you still don’t know the answer, eliminate as many answer choices as possible. Then select the best remaining choice. • Pace yourself so you have enough time to answer every question. Be aware of the time limit for every section/task and budget enough time for each. You can hide the time clock, but check the clock periodically to monitor your progress. The clock will automatically alert you when five minutes remain in Listening and Reading as well as in Writing. • The toolbar tells you how many questions you’ve answered and how many remain. Use this information to decide whether you need to go faster or slower. • Review in Reading. You can go back to review and change your responses in the Reading section by clicking Review. It’s best to do this only after you’ve answered all the questions.

After the Test After you take the test and receive your scores, you can determine whether you need to take the test again. If you do, we recommend that you prepare with additional activities in the Planner, reviewing the practice tests in The Official Guide and taking additional practice tests on TOEFL® Practice Online (www.ets.org/toeflpractice).

Score Reports Scores are reported online approximately 10 days after the test. You can view your scores online free of charge. Paper score reports are mailed shortly after the scores are posted online. Please see Appendix 2 for a sample examinee score report.

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Sending Your Scores You can select up to four TOEFL® Destinations as score recipients for free when you register. In addition to the destinations you select with your registration, you can send your scores to as many other institutions as you choose for a small fee. You can order by logging into your online profile, by mail or by fax. Go to www.ets.org/toefl for more information.

Performance Feedback Score reports also include feedback that indicates whether your performance was high, medium or low and describes what test takers in these score ranges typically know and can do with the English language.

Lexile Measures ®

You can build your English-language reading skills by matching your TOEFL iBT ® Reading score with a Lexile® measure. Your Lexile measure allows you to find books that reflect your reading ability and interests and are challenging enough to help strengthen your reading skills. MetaMetrics®, Inc. and ETS offer this free service to take the guesswork out of choosing the right materials for you to read. Go to www.lexile.com/toefl for more information.

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appendix

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Sample Questions

Following are print versions of sample questions from each of the four skills sections. You can access these questions on the Planner website (www.ets.org/toefl/planner) along with sample responses for the Speaking and Writing sample questions. These sample questions are in addition to the free TOEFL iBT ® Online Sampler that you receive with online test registration. See page 3 for a list of all the Sources for Authentic TOEFL® Questions.

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Reading Section Directions: These sample questions in the Reading section measure your ability to understand academic passages in English. You will read one passage and answer questions about it. In a real test, you would have 20 minutes to read the passage and answer the questions. Candidates with disabilities may request a time extension.

Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction There is increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites have had important effects on Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth. Twice in the twentieth century, large meteorite objects are known to have collided with Earth. 5

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If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period of geological history. This break in Earth’s history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared. The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the worldwide layer of sediment deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped the planet after the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal iridium and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but very rare in the crust of Earth. Even diluted by the terrestrial material excavated from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified. By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucatán region of Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200 kilometers in diameter. This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The explosion lifted about 100 trillion tons of dust into the atmosphere, as can be determined by measuring the thickness of the sediment layer formed when this dust settled to the surface. Such a quantity of material would have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging Earth into a period of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The explosion is also calculated to have produced vast quantities of nitric acid and melted rock that sprayed out over much of Earth, starting widespread fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland. Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs.

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Several other mass extinctions in the geological record have been tentatively identified with large impacts, but none is so dramatic as the Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their results can be catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things, however, may create opportunities for another group. Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by the event. Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades ago. In 1991 the United States Congress asked NASA to investigate the hazard posed today by large impacts on Earth. The group conducting the study concluded from a detailed analysis that impacts from meteorites can indeed be hazardous. Although there is always some risk that a large impact could occur, careful study shows that this risk is quite small.

1. The word “pose” on line 2 is closest in meaning to a. claim b. model c. assume d. present

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2. In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared? a. To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous is the best-documented of the dozen or so mass extinctions in the geological record b. To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous c. To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous d. To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster 3. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the location of the meteorite impact in Mexico? a. The location of the impact site in Mexico was kept secret by geologists from 1980 to 1990. b. It was a well-known fact that the impact had occurred in the Yucatán region. c. Geologists knew that there had been an impact before they knew where it had occurred. d. The Yucatán region was chosen by geologists as the most probable impact site because of its climate. 4. According to paragraph 3, how did scientists determine that a large meteorite had impacted Earth? a. They discovered a large crater in the Yucatán region of Mexico. b. They found a unique layer of sediment worldwide. c. They were alerted by archaeologists who had been excavating in the Yucatán region. d. They located a meteorite with a mass of over a trillion tons.

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5. The word “excavating” on line 25 is closest in meaning to a. digging out b. extending c. destroying d. covering up 6. The word “consumed” on line 32 is closest in meaning to a. changed b. exposed c. destroyed d. covered 7. According to paragraph 4, all of the following statements are true of the impact at the end of the Cretaceous period EXCEPT: a. A large amount of dust blocked sunlight from Earth. b. Earth became cold and dark for several months. c. New elements were formed in Earth’s crust. d. Large quantities of nitric acid were produced. 8. The phrase “tentatively identified” on line 36 is closest in meaning to a. identified after careful study b. identified without certainty c. occasionally identified d. easily identified

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9. The word “perspective” on line 46 is closest in meaning to a. sense of values b. point of view c. calculation d. complication 10. Paragraph 6 supports which of the following statements about the factors that are essential for the survival of a species? a. The most important factor for the survival of a species is its ability to compete and adapt to gradual changes in its environment. b. The ability of a species to compete and adapt to a gradually changing environment is not the only ability that is essential for survival. c. Since most extinctions of species are due to major meteorite impacts, the ability to survive such impacts is the most important factor for the survival of a species. d. The factors that are most important for the survival of a species vary significantly from one species to another.

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11. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the following sentence?

Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades ago.



Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. a. Until recently, nobody realized that Earth is exposed to unpredictable violent impacts from space. b. In the last few decades, the risk of a random violent impact from space has increased. c. Since most violent events on Earth occur randomly, nobody can predict when or where they will happen. d. A few decades ago, Earth became the target of random violent events originating in outer space.

12. According to the passage, who conducted investigations about the current dangers posed by large meteorite impacts on Earth? a. Paleontologists b. Geologists c. The United States Congress d. NASA

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13. Look at the four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage in paragraph 6.

This is the criterion emphasized by Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.



Where would the sentence best fit?



Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. (A) According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. (B) Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. (C) The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. (D) Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts.



Choose the place where the sentence fits best. a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. Option D

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14. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. You can write in the number of the answer choice or the whole sentence.

Scientists have linked the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous with a meteorite impact on Earth.

• • • Answer choices (1) Scientists had believed for centuries that meteorite activity influenced evolution on Earth. (2) The site of the large meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous period was identified in 1990. (3) There have also been large meteorite impacts on the surface of the Moon, leaving craters like Tycho. (4) An iridium-enriched sediment layer and a large impact crater in the Yucatán provide evidence that a large meteorite struck Earth about 65 million years ago. (5) Large meteorite impacts, such as one at the end of the Cretaceous period, can seriously affect climate, ecological niches, plants, and animals. (6) Meteorite impacts can be advantageous for some species, which thrive, and disastrous for other species, which become extinct.

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Key to Reading Section: 1. d 2. c 3. c 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. b 10. b 11. a 12. d 13. d 14. 4, 5, 6

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Directions: The Listening section measures your ability to understand conversations and lectures in English. In this sample, you will read one conversation and one lecture and answer questions after each conversation or lecture. The questions typically ask about the main idea and supporting details. Some questions ask about a speaker’s purpose or attitude. Answer the questions based on what is stated or implied by the speakers. Most questions are worth one point. If a question is worth more than one point, it will have special directions that indicate how many points you can receive. •• In an actual test, you will be able to take notes while you listen and use your notes to help you answer the questions. Your notes will not be scored. •• You can access the audio version of the lecture, conversation, and related questions on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner through the link for the TOEFL iBT® test questions. CONVERSATION TRANSCRIPT (Narrator) Listen to a conversation between a student and her basketball coach and then answer the questions. (Male coach) Hi, Elizabeth. (Female student) Hey, Coach. I just thought I’d stop by to see what I missed while I was gone. (Male coach) Well, we’ve been working real hard on our plan for the next game . . . I’ve asked Susan to go over it with you before practice this afternoon, so you’ll know what we’re doing. (Female student) Okay. (Male coach) By the way, how did your brother’s wedding go? (Female student) Oh, it was beautiful. And the whole family was there. I saw aunts and uncles and cousins I hadn’t seen in years. (Male coach) So it was worth the trip. (Female student) Oh definitely. I’m sorry I had to miss practice, though. I feel bad about that. (Male coach) Family’s very important. (Female student) Yep. Okay, I guess I’ll see you this afternoon at practice, then.

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(Male coach) Just a minute. There are a couple of other things I need to tell you. (Female student) Oh, okay. (Male coach) Uh . . . First, everybody’s getting a new team jacket. (Female student) Wow. How did that happen? (Male coach) A woman who played here about 20, 25 years ago came through town a few weeks ago and saw a game, and said she wanted to do something for the team, so . . . (Female student) So she’s buying us new jackets? (Male coach) Yep. (Female student) Wow, that’s really nice of her. (Male coach) Yes, it is. It’s great that former players still care so much about our school and our basketball program . . . Anyway you need to fill out an order form. I’ll give it to you now, and you can bring it back this afternoon. I’ve got the forms from the other players, so as soon as I get yours we can order. Maybe we’ll have the jackets by the next game. (Female student) OK. (Male coach) Great. And the next thing is, you know Mary’s transferring to another college next week, so we’ll need someone to take over her role as captain for the second half of the season. And the other players unanimously picked you to take over as captain when Mary leaves. (Female student) Wow. I saw everybody this morning, and nobody said a word. (Male coach) They wanted me to tell you. So, do you accept? (Female student) Of course! But Susan’s a much better player than I am. I’m really surprised they didn’t pick her. (Male coach) They think you’re the right one. You’ll have to ask them their thoughts. (Female student) Okay . . . I guess one of the first things I’ll have to do as captain is make sure we get a thank-you card out to the lady who’s buying us the jackets. (Male coach) Good idea. I have her address here somewhere. (Female student) And I’ll make sure the whole team signs it.

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(Male coach) Good. That’s all the news there is. I think that’s it for now. Oh, let me get you that order form. 1. What are the speakers mainly discussing? a. How the woman should prepare for the next game b. The woman’s responsibilities as team captain c. Things that happened while the woman was away d. The style of the new team uniforms 2. Who is buying new jackets for the team? a. The coach b. The captain of the team c. A former player d. A group of basketball fans 3. There are two answers for the next question. Mark two answers.

Why is the woman surprised to learn that she has been chosen as the new team captain? a. She is not the best player on the team. b. Her teammates did not tell her about the decision. c. She does not have many friends on the team. d. She has missed a lot of practices.

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4. Read part of the conversation again. Then answer the question.

(Female student) I’m sorry I had to miss practice, though. I feel bad about that.



(Male coach) Family’s very important.



What does the man mean when he says: “Family’s very important.” a. He hopes the woman’s family is doing well. b. He would like to meet the woman’s family. c. The woman should spend more time with her family. d. The woman had a good reason for missing practice.

5. Why does the coach say: “Good. That’s all the news there is. I think that’s it for now.” a. He wants to know if the woman understood his point. b. He wants the woman to act immediately. c. He is preparing to change the topic. d. He is ready to end the conversation.

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LECTURE TRANSCRIPT (Narrator) Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class. (Male professor) Today I’d like to introduce you to a novel that some critics consider the finest detective novel ever written. It was also the first. We’re talking about The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins. Now, there are other detective stories that preceded The Moonstone historically—Um, notably the work of Poe . . . Edgar Allen Poe’s stories, such as “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” and . . . “The Purloined Letter.” Now these were short stories that featured a detective . . . uh, probably the first to do that. But The Moonstone, which follows them by about twenty years—it was published in 1868—this is the first full-length detective novel ever written. Now, in The Moonstone—if you read it as . . . uh, come to it as a contemporary reader— what’s interesting is that most of the features you find in almost any detective novel are in fact already present. Uh, its hard at this juncture to read this novel and realize that no one had ever done that before, because it all seems so strikingly familiar. It’s, it’s really a wonderful novel and I recommend it, even just as a fun book to read, if you’ve never read it. Um, so in The Moonstone, as I said, Collins did much to establish the conventions of the detective genre. I’m not gonna go into the plot at length, but, you know, the basic setup is . . . there’s this diamond of great . . . of great value, a country house, the diamond mysteriously disappears in the middle of the night, uh, the local police are brought in, in an attempt to solve the crime, and they mess it up completely, and then the true hero of the book arrives. That’s Sergeant Cuff. Now, Cuff, this extraordinarily important character . . . well, let me try to give you a sense of who Sergeant Cuff is, by first describing the regular police. And this is the dynamic that you’re going to see throughout the history of the detective novel, where you have the regular cops—who are well-meaning, but officious and bumblingly inept—and they are countered by a figure who’s eccentric, analytical, brilliant, and . . . and able to solve the crime. So, first the regular police get called in to solve the mystery—Um, in this case, detective, uh, Superintendent Seegrave. When Superintendent Seegrave comes in, he orders his minions around, they bumble, and they actually make a mess of the investigation, which you’ll see repeated—um, you’ll see this pattern repeated, particularly in the Sherlock Holmes stories of a few years later where, uh, Inspector Lestrade, this well-meaning idiot, is always countered, uh, by Sherlock Holmes, who’s a genius. So, now Cuff arrives. Cuff is the man who’s coming to solve the mystery, and again he has a lot of the characteristics that future detectives throughout the history of this genre will have. He’s eccentric. He has a hobby that he’s obsessive about—in this . . . in his case, it’s the love of roses. He’s a fanatic about the breeding of roses; and here think of Nero Wolfe and his orchids, Sherlock Holmes and his violin, a lot of those later classic detective heroes have this kind of outside interest that they . . . they go to as a kind of antidote to the evil and misery they encounter in their daily lives. At one point, Cuff says

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he likes his roses because they offer solace, uh, an escape, from the world of crime he typically operates in. Now, these detective heroes . . . they have this characteristic of being smart, incredibly smart, but of not appearing to be smart. And most importantly, from a kind of existential point of view, these detectives see things that other people do not see. And that’s why the detective is such an important figure, I think, in our modern imagination. In the case of The Moonstone—I don’t want to say too much here and spoil it for you—but the clue that’s key to . . . the solving of the crime is a smeared bit of paint in a doorway. Of course, the regular police have missed this paint smear or made some sort of unwarranted assumption about it. Cuff sees this smear of paint—this paint, the place where the paint is smeared—and realizes that from this one smear of paint you can actually deduce the whole situation . . . the whole world. And that’s what the hero in a detective novel like this . . . brings to it that the other characters don’t—it’s this ability to, uh, see meaning where others see no meaning and to bring order . . . to where it seems there is no order. 6. What is the lecture mainly about? a. A comparison of two types of detective novels b. Ways in which detective novels have changed over time c. The Moonstone as a model for later detective novels d. Flaws that can be found in the plot of The Moonstone 7. In what way is The Moonstone different from earlier works featuring a detective? a. In its unusual ending b. In its unique characters c. In its focus on a serious crime d. In its greater length

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8. According to the professor, what do roses in The Moonstone represent? a. A key clue that leads to the solving of the mystery b. A relief and comfort to the detective c. Romance between the main characters d. Brilliant ideas that occur to the detective 9. Why does the professor mention a smeared bit of paint in a doorway in The Moonstone? a. To describe a mistake that Sergeant Cuff has made b. To show how realistically the author describes the crime scene c. To exemplify a pattern repeated in many other detective stories d. To illustrate the superior techniques used by the police 10. What can be inferred about the professor when he says this: “Uh, it’s hard at this juncture to read this novel and realize that no one had ever done that before, because it all seems so strikingly familiar.” a. He is impressed by the novel’s originality. b. He is concerned that students may find the novel difficult to read. c. He is bored by the novel’s descriptions of ordinary events. d. He is eager to write a book about a less familiar subject.

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11. What does the professor imply when he says this: “. . . well, let me try to give you a sense of who Sergeant Cuff is, by first describing the regular police.” a. Sergeant Cuff is unlike other characters in The Moonstone. b. The author’s description of Sergeant Cuff is very realistic. c. Sergeant Cuff learned to solve crimes by observing the regular police. d. Differences between Sergeant Cuff and Sherlock Holmes are hard to describe.

Key to Listening section: 1. c 2. c 3. a, b 4. d 5. d 6. c 7. d 8. b 9. c 10. a 11. a

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Section Directions: The Speaking section inSpeaking the test measures your ability to speak about a variety of topics. •• In questions 1 and 2, in an actual test, your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently about familiar topics. •• In questions 3 and 4, in an actual test, you will first read a short text and then listen to a talk on the same topic. You will have to combine appropriate information from the text and the talk to provide a complete answer. Your response will be scored on your ability to accurately convey information, and to speak clearly and coherently. In this sampler, you will read both the text and the talk. The audio file for these talks as well as the ones for questions 5 and 6 can be found on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner through the link for TOEFL iBT® test questions. •• In questions 5 and 6, in an actual test, you will listen to part of a conversation or lecture. Then, you will be asked a question about what you have heard. Your response will be scored on your ability to accurately convey information, and to speak clearly and coherently. In this sampler, you will read the conversation. •• In an actual test, you will be able to take notes while you read and while you listen to the conversations and talks. You may use your notes to help prepare your responses. •• Preparation and response times for an actual test are noted in this text. Candidates with disabilities may request time extensions. •• Sample candidate responses and score explanations can be found on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner through the link for interactive sample responses. The Speaking scoring guide used to score actual responses is also available in a separate link.

1. Talk about a pleasant and memorable event that happened while you were in school. Explain why this event brings back fond memories.

Preparation Time: 15 seconds Response Time: 45 seconds

2. Some people think it is more fun to spend time with friends in restaurants or cafés. Others think it is more fun to spend time with friends at home. Which do you think is better? Explain why.

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3. Read the following text and the conversation that follows it. Then, answer the question.

The Northfield College Student Association recently decided to make a new purchase. Read the following announcement in the college newspaper about the decision. (Reading time in an actual test would be 45-50 seconds.) Good News for Movie Fans The Student Association has just purchased a new sound system for the Old Lincoln Hall auditorium, the place where movies on campus are currently shown. By installing the new sound system, the Student Association hopes to attract more students to the movies and increase ticket sales. Before making the purchase of the new equipment, the Student Association conducted a survey on campus to see what kind of entertainment students liked best. Going to the movies ranked number one. “Students at Northfield College love going to the movies” said the president of the Student Association, “so we decided to make what they already love even better. We’re confident that the investment into the sound system will translate into increased ticket sales.” (Male student) I really think the Student Association made a bad decision. (Female student) Really? Why? Don’t you like going to the movies? (Male student) Sure I do. But this new purchase is just a waste of money. (Female student) What do you mean? It’s supposed to sound really good. (Male student) Yeah, well, I’m sure it does, but, in Old Lincoln Hall? I mean that building must be 200 years old! It used to be the college gym! The acoustics are terrible. (Female student) So you’re saying there’ll be no improvement? (Male student) That’s right. And also, I seriously doubt that going to the movies is the number one social activity for most students. (Female student) Yeah, but that’s what students said. (Male student) Well, of course that’s what they said. What else is there to do on campus? (Female student) What do you mean?

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(Male student) I mean, there isn’t much to do on campus besides go to the movies. If there were other forms of, uh recreation, or other social activities, you know, I don’t think most students would have said that going to the movies was their first choice. Question: The man expresses his opinion of the Student Association’s recent purchase. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. Preparation Time: 30 seconds Response Time: 60 seconds 4. Read a passage from a psychology textbook and the lecture that follows it. Then answer the question. (Reading time in an actual test would be 45-50 seconds.) Flow In psychology, the feeling of complete and energized focus in an activity is called flow. People who enter a state of flow lose their sense of time and have a feeling of great satisfaction. They become completely involved in an activity for its own sake rather than for what may result from the activity, such as money or prestige. Contrary to expectation, flow usually happens not during relaxing moments of leisure and entertainment, but when we are actively involved in a difficult enterprise, in a task that stretches our mental or physical abilities. (Male professor) I think this will help you get a picture of what your textbook is describing. I had a friend who taught in the physics department, Professor Jones, he retired last year. . . . Anyway, I remember . . . this was a few years ago . . . I remember passing by a classroom early one morning just as he was leaving, and he looked terrible: his clothes were all rumpled, and he looked like he hadn’t slept all night. And I asked if he was OK. I was surprised when he said that he never felt better, that he was totally happy. He had spent the entire night in the classroom working on a mathematics puzzle. He didn’t stop to eat dinner; he didn’t stop to sleep . . . or even rest. He was that involved in solving the puzzle. And it didn’t even have anything to do with his teaching or research; he had just come across this puzzle accidentally, I think in a mathematics journal, and it just really interested him, so he worked furiously all night and covered the blackboards in the classroom with equations and numbers and never realized that time was passing by. Question: Explain flow and how the example used by the professor illustrates the concept. Preparation Time: 30 seconds Response Time: 60 seconds

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5. Read the following conversation between two students and then answer the question. (Female student) How’s the calculus class going? You’re doing better? (Male student) Not really. I just can’t get the hang of it. There’re so many functions and formulas to memorize, you know? And the final . . . It’s only a few weeks away. I’m really worried about doing well. (Female student) Oh . . . You know, you should go to the tutoring program and ask for help. (Male student) You mean, in the Mathematics building? (Female student) Ya. Get a tutor there. Most tutors are doctoral students in the math program. They know what they’re talking about, and for the final test, you know, they’d tell you what to study, how to prepare, all of that. (Male student) I know about that program . . . but doesn’t it cost money? (Female student) Of course. You have to register and pay by the hour . . . But they’ve got all the answers. (Male student) Hmm . . . (Female student) Another option, I guess, is to form a study group with other students. That won’t cost you any money. (Male student) That’s a thought . . . although once I was in a study group, and it was a big waste of time. We usually ended up talking about other stuff like what we did over the weekend. (Female student) But that was for a different class, right? I’ve actually had some pretty good experiences with study groups. Usually students in the same class have different strengths and weaknesses with the material . . . if they’re serious about studying, they can really help each other out. Think about it. Question: Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. Preparation Time: 20 seconds Response Time: 60 seconds

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Appendix 1: Sample Questions

6. Read part of a lecture in a biology course and then answer the question. (Female professor) Human beings aren’t the only animals that use tools. It’s generally recognized that other animals use tools as well . . . use them naturally, in the wild, without any human instruction. But when can we say that an object is a tool? Well, it depends on your definition of a tool. And in fact, there are two competing definitions—a narrow definition and a broad one. The narrow definition says that a tool is an object that’s used to perform a specific task . . . but not just any object. To be a tool, according to the narrow definition, the object’s gotta be purposefully changed or shaped by the animal, or human, so that it can be used that way. It’s an object that’s made. Wild chimpanzees use sticks to dig insects out of their nests . . . but most sticks lying around won’t do the job . . . they might be too thick, for example. So the sticks have to be sharpened so they’ll fit into the hole in an ant hill or the insect nest. The chimp pulls off the leaves and chews the stick and trims it down that way until it’s the right size. The chimp doesn’t just find the stick . . . it . . . you could say it makes it in a way. But the broad definition says an object doesn’t have to be modified to be considered a tool. The broad definition says a tool is any object that’s used to perform a specific task. For example, an elephant will sometimes use a stick to scratch its back . . . it just picks up a stick from the ground and scratches its back with it . . . It doesn’t modify the stick, it uses it just as it’s found. And it’s a tool, under the broad definition, but under the narrow definition it’s not because, well, the elephant doesn’t change it in any way. Question: Using points and examples from the talk, describe the two different definitions of tools given by the professor. Preparation Time: 20 seconds Response Time: 60 seconds

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Writing Section

Directions: These sample tasks in the Writing section measure your ability to write in English in an academic environment. There will be 2 writing tasks. •• For the first task in this sampler, you will read a passage and part of a lecture about an academic topic. Then you will write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship between the lecture and the reading passage. Try to answer the question as completely as possible using information from the reading passage and the lecture. The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Note: The audio file for the lecture can be found on the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner through the link for the TOEFL iBT® test questions. •• For the second task, you will demonstrate your ability to write an essay in response to a question that asks you to express and support your opinion about a topic or issue. Your essay will be scored on the quality of your writing. This includes the development of your ideas, the organization of your essay, and the quality and accuracy of the language you use to express your ideas. •• At the end of the writing section, in this sampler you will find two sample essays for each question, the score they received, and an explanation of how they were scored. •• In an actual test, you will be able to take notes while you listen and use your notes to help you answer the questions.

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Appendix 1: Sample Questions

1. Read the following passage and the lecture which follows. In an actual test, you will have 3 minutes to read the passage. Then, answer the question. In the test, you will have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. READING PASSAGE Critics say that current voting systems used in the United States are inefficient and often lead to the inaccurate counting of votes. Miscounts can be especially damaging if an election is closely contested. Those critics would like the traditional systems to be replaced with far more efficient and trustworthy computerized voting systems. In traditional voting, one major source of inaccuracy is that people accidentally vote for the wrong candidate. Voters usually have to find the name of their candidate on a large sheet of paper containing many names—the ballot—and make a small mark next to that name. People with poor eyesight can easily mark the wrong name. The computerized voting machines have an easy-to-use touch-screen technology: to cast a vote, a voter needs only to touch the candidate’s name on the screen to record a vote for that candidate; voters can even have the computer magnify the name for easier viewing. Another major problem with old voting systems is that they rely heavily on people to count the votes. Officials must often count up the votes one by one, going through every ballot and recording the vote. Since they have to deal with thousands of ballots, it is almost inevitable that they will make mistakes. If an error is detected, a long and expensive recount has to take place. In contrast, computerized systems remove the possibility of human error, since all the vote counting is done quickly and automatically by the computers. Finally some people say it is too risky to implement complicated voting technology nationwide. But without giving it a thought, governments and individuals alike trust other complex computer technology every day to be perfectly accurate in banking transactions as well as in the communication of highly sensitive information. LECTURE TRANSCRIPT (Narrator) Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about. (Female professor) While traditional voting systems have some problems, it’s doubtful that computerized voting will make the situation any better. Computerized voting may seem easy for people who are used to computers. But what about people who aren’t? People who can’t afford computers, people who don’t use them on a regular basis—these people will have trouble using computerized voting machines. These voters can easily cast the wrong vote or be discouraged from voting altogether because of fear of technology. Furthermore, it’s true that humans make mistakes when they count up ballots by hand. But are we sure that computers will do a better job? After all, computers are

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programmed by humans, so “human error” can show up in mistakes in their programs. And the errors caused by these defective programs may be far more serious. The worst a human official can do is miss a few ballots. But an error in a computer program can result in thousands of votes being miscounted or even permanently removed from the record. And in many voting systems, there is no physical record of the votes, so a computer recount in the case of a suspected error is impossible! As for our trust of computer technology for banking and communications, remember one thing: these systems are used daily and they are used heavily. They didn’t work flawlessly when they were first introduced. They had to be improved on and improved on until they got as reliable as they are today. But voting happens only once every two years nationally in the United States and not much more than twice a year in many local areas. This is hardly sufficient for us to develop confidence that computerized voting can be fully trusted. Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they oppose specific points made in the reading passage.

2. Read the question below. In a real test, you will have 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay. Candidates with disabilities may request a time extension. Typically, an effective response will contain a minimum of 300 words. Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

A teacher’s ability to relate well with students is more important than excellent knowledge of the subject being taught.



Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

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Sample responses Below are candidates’ responses exemplifying scores of 5 and 4 for both Writing tasks. The scoring guides used to score actual responses can be found in Appendix 3 and 4. QUESTION 1, RESPONSE A, SCORE OF 5 The lecture explained why the computerized voting system can not replace the traditional voting system. There are the following three reasons. First of all, not everyoen one can use computers correctly. Some people do not have access to computers, some people are not used of computers, and some people are even scared of this new technology. If the voters do not know how to use a computer, how do you expect them to finish the voting process through computers? This directly refutes the reading passage which states that computerized voting is easier by just touching the screen. Secondly, computers may make mistakes as the people do. As computers are programmed by the human beings, thus erros are inevitable in the computer system. Problems caused by computer voting systems may be more serious than those caused by people. A larger number of votes might be miss counted or even removed from the system. Furthermore, it would take more energy to recount the votes. Again this contradicts what is stated in the reading which stated that only people will make mistakes in counting. Thirdly, computerized voting system is not reliable because it has not reached a stable status. People trust computers to conduct banking transactions because the computerized banking system is being used daily and frecuently and has been stable. How ever, the voting does not happen as often as banking thus the computerized voting system has not been proved to be totally reliable. All in all, not everyone can use a computer properly, computer cause mistakes and computerized voting system is not reliable are the main reasons why computerized voting system can not replace the traditional voting system. Score explanation This response is well organized, selects the important information from all three points made in the lecture, and explains its relationship to the claims made in the reading passage about the advantages of computerized voting over traditional voting methods. First, it counters the argument that computerized voting is more user-friendly and prevents distortion of the vote by saying that many voters find computers unfamiliar and some voters may end up not voting at all.

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Second, it challenges the argument that computerized voting will result in fewer miscounts by pointing out that programming errors may result in large-scale miscounts and that some errors may result in the loss of voting records. Third, it rejects the comparison of computerized voting with computerized banking by pointing out that the reliability of computerized banking (“reached a stable status”) has been achieved though frequent use, which does not apply to voting. There are occasional minor language errors: for example, “people not used of computers”; “miss counted”; “computer cause mistakes”; and the poor syntax of the last sentence (“All in all . . . ”). Some spelling errors are obviously typos: “everyoen.” The errors, however, are not at all frequent and do not result in unclear or inaccurate representation of the content. The response meets all the criteria for the score of 5.

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QUESTION 1, RESPONSE B, SCORE OF 4 The leture disgreed with the article’s opinions. It’s not a better solution to use the computerized voting systems. Firstly, it might be hard for the voters who don’t use the computer so often, or the users who is fear of the technology, even some of voters can not aford a computer. Touch screen may also be hard to use for people who is not familiar with computers. Secondly, computer is programmed by human beings, which means it can also have errors. Instead of human being’s counting error, which only results one or two counting error in number, an errror in the program code could cause tramendous error in number. In case of the computer crash or disaster, it may lost all the voting information. We can not even to make a re-count. Lastly, our daily banking or other highly sensitive infomation system, is actually improved as time goes by. They were also problematic at the beginning. As we use them so often, we have more chances to find problems, and furturemore, to fix and improve them. However, for the voting system, we only use them every 2 years nationally and some other rare events. We just don’t use it often enough to find a bug or test it thoroughly. Score explanation The response selects most of the important information from the lecture and indicates that it challenges the main argument in the reading passage about the advantages of computerized voting systems (“it’s not a better solution”). First, the response explains that some people will not find computers to be userfriendly; however, it fails to relate this clearly to the point made in the passage that computerized voting will prevent distortion of the vote. That is clearly an omission, but it is minor. Second, the response does a good job of pointing out how programming and errors can cause greater problems than miscounts cause in the traditional voting system. Third, the response provides a nice explanation of how the frequent use of systems like the banking system has contributed to such systems’ reliability, and then it contrasts that with the computerized voting system. There are more frequent language errors throughout the response—for example, “users who is fear”; “some of voters can not aford”; “people who is not familiar”; “it may lost”; and “can not even to make.” Expressions chosen by the writer occasionally affect the clarity of the content that is being conveyed: “results one or two counting error in number . . . an errror in the program code could cause tramendous error in number” and “use them every 2 years nationally and some other rare events.” However, it should be noted that in these cases, a reader can derive the intended meaning from the context. Due to the more frequent language errors that on occasion result in minor lapses of clarity and due to minor content omission, especially in the coverage of the first lecture point, the response cannot earn the score of 5. At the same time, since the language errors are generally minor and mostly do not interfere with the clarity of the content and since most of the important information from the lecture is covered by the writer, the response deserves a higher score than 3. It meets the criteria for the score of 4.

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QUESTION 2, RESPONSE A, SCORE OF 5 I remember every teacher that has taught me since I was in Kindergarten. If a friend wants to know who our first grade teacher was in elementary school, all they have to do is ask me. The teachers all looked very kind and understanding in my eyes as a child. They had special relationships with nearly each and every one of the students and were very nice to everyone. That’s the reason I remember all of them. A teacher’s primary goal is to teach students the best they can about the things that are in our textbooks and more important, how to show respect for one another. They teach us how to live a better life by getting along with everyone. In order to do that, the teachers themselves have to be able to relate well with students. My parents are teachers too. One teaches Plant Biology and one teaches English, but that’s not the reason I’m calling them “teachers.” They are teachers beacuse they teach me how to act in special situations and how to cooperate with others. I have a brother, and my parents use different aproaches when teaching us. They might scold my brother for surfing the internet too long because he doesn’t have much self-control and they need to restrain him. He almost never studies on his own and is always either drawing, playing computer games, or reading. On the other hand, they never tell me off for using the computer too long. I do my own work when I want and need to because that brings me the best results and my parents understand that. They know that I need leisure time of my own and that I’ll only play until needed. My parents’ ability to relate well with my brother and I allows them to teach, not just the subject they teach but also their excellent knowledge on life. Knowlegde of the subject being taught is something taken for granted, but at the same time, secondary. One must go through and pass a series of courses and tests in order to become a teacher. Any teacher is able to have excellent knowledge of their subject but not all teachers can have the ability to relate well with students. A teacher’s primary goal is to teach students the best they can about how to show respect for one another, so teachers use different approaches when teaching, and knowledge of the subjet being taught is secondary. For these reasons, I claim with confidence that excellent knowledge of the subject being taught is secondary to the teacher’s ability to relate well with their students. Score explanation This essay conveys the idea that as important as teaching knowledge is, it is as important if not more important for teachers to possess other qualities, all of which the writer classifies as necessary for being able to relate well with students. Those other qualities include having “special relationships” with students; the teaching of respect (in the first two paragraphs); and taking different approaches for different individuals. The writer develops the last idea primarily by using a clearly appropriate extended and complex example of the writer’s own parents, who are teachers but whose special qualities in raising the writer and the writer’s brother had to do more with taking varied approaches. The writer then goes on to convey that knowledge is a given—“something

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taken for granted”—because all teachers take course work and pass tests to gain their jobs but not all have the qualities the writer considers more important. This response very effectively addresses the topic and the task. It is true that this response is different from most essays: the overall idea is stated explicitly but only at the end of the essay. However, because of very good language structure and good conceptual transitions between ideas, the reader is able to follow the writer’s development of ideas without becoming confused. The response is thus seen to be well organized. Errors in language are almost nonexistent here. This response meets all of the 5-level criteria from the Scoring Guide.

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QUESTION 2, RESPONSE B, SCORE OF 4 I disagree with the idea that the possessing the ability to relate well with student is more important than excellent knowledge of the subject being taught for a teacher. There are several reasons why I disagree with that idea. First, teachers’ job is to educate their student with their knowledge. The ability to relate well with their student is something a counselor should possess, not a teacher. That’s why the board of education gives an award to a teacher with an excellent knowledge of the subject they teach. Teachers who can get along with their students but have no knowledge can be popular and be liked by his or her students, however I don’t consider a teacher with no knowledge a good teacher. Second, Students go to schools because they want to learn knowledge from their teachers not to get along with their teachers. I knew a math teacher who was well known among other mathematics teachers. Some students always complained how he never entertains his students which made many of his students to fall asleep. Nevertheless, all of his classes were all full even before the semester began because many students who were eager to learn already booked in. He won the Apples prize (it’s given to a noticed teacher annually) a couple of times and that enabled students to firmly believe in his way of teaching. Thirdly, teachers are responsible for conceding their knowledge to their next generation. Teachers already had an experience of getting advantaged education from college. Teachers should not let that previlege become useless and workless. We all learn because we want to become the better person that this world needs. Students will also eventually grow up to be influencing other people and teachers should volunteerily be their students’ role models. For conclusion, I think the most important quality a teacher must have is an excellent knowledge of the subject they teach, not an ability to relate well with their students. Score explanation This is a more traditional-looking essay that is organized with a point of view in the first paragraph stating the writer’s disagreement with the writing prompt, followed by three pieces of supporting reasons and examples. The second paragraph makes the point that counselors are the ones who are supposed to relate to students and that teachers with no knowledge are not worthwhile as teachers. In the third paragraph the writer tries to describe the fact that knowledge is important by stating that students wanted to take courses from a teacher who was known to possess special knowledge even though they knew the teacher was not entertaining. The fourth paragraph contains the very interesting idea that teachers have the obligation to pass on what they have had the privilege of learning, but this paragraph in particular has a few problems with somewhat unclear expression of concepts: (1) errors of word choice in the word “conceding” (not clear exactly what word is intended here) and in the term “‘advantaged’ education” (advanced education or advantages of education?)

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and (2) a problem with unclear connection of ideas (why is it said that “We all learn because we want to become the better person that this world needs?”). Overall, this essay is well organized, but the slightly unclear connection of ideas and the language chosen, especially in the final paragraph, prevent this response from rising above the 4 level.

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appendix

2

Sample Score Report

Here’s a sample score report. It includes scaled scores for all four sections. The reports also provide performance feedback on all four skills. Note: This sample shows only the performance feedback for Reading and Listening.

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appendix

3

Scoring Guides– Speaking

These are the Scoring Guides for the Speaking section. Go to the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner for sample Speaking questions and responses. As you view and listen, refer to the Scoring Guides to better understand the score levels.

Scoring Guide for Independent Speaking (Questions 1 & 2) Score

General Description

Delivery

Language Use

Topic Development

4

The response fulfills the demands of the task, with at most minor lapses in completeness. It is highly intelligible and exhibits sustained, coherent discourse. A response at this level is characterized by all of the following:

Generally well-paced flow (fluid expression). Speech is clear. It may include minor lapses or minor difficulties with pronunciation or intonation patterns, which do not affect intelligibility.

The response demonstrates effective use of grammar and vocabulary. It exhibits a fairly high degree of automaticity with good control of basic and complex structures (as appropriate). Some minor (or systemic) errors are noticeable, but do not obscure meaning.

Response is sustained and sufficient to the task. It is generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear (or clear progression of ideas).

3

The response addresses the task appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression, though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, though minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation, or pacing are noticeable and may require listener effort at times (though overall intelligibility is not significantly affected).

The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures used. This may affect overall fluency, but it does not seriously interfere with the communication of the message.

Response is mostly coherent and sustained and conveys relevant ideas/information. Overall development is somewhat limited; usually lacks elaboration or specificity. Relationships between ideas may at times not be immediately clear.

2

The response addresses the task, but development of the topic is limited. It contains intelligible speech, although problems with delivery and/ or overall coherence occur; meaning may be obscured in places. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is basically intelligible, though listener effort is needed because of unclear articulation, awkward intonation or choppy rhythm/pace; meaning may be obscured in places.

The response demonstrates limited range and control of grammar and vocabulary. These limitations often prevent full expression of ideas. For the most part, only basic sentence structures are used successfully and spoken with fluidity. Structures and vocabulary may express mainly simple (short) and/or general propositions, with simple or unclear connections made among them (serial listing, conjunction, juxtaposition).

The response is connected to the task, though the number of ideas presented or the development of ideas is limited. Mostly basic ideas are expressed with limited elaboration (details and support). At times, relevant substance may be vaguely expressed or repetitious. Connections of ideas may be unclear.

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Score

Appendix 3: Scoring Guides–Speaking

General Description

Delivery

Language Use

1

The response is very limited in content and/or coherence or is only minimally connected to the task, or speech is largely unintelligible. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

0

Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response is unrelated to the topic.

Consistent pronunciation, stress and intonation difficulties cause considerable listener effort; delivery is choppy, fragmented or telegraphic; frequent pauses and hesitations.

Range and control of grammar and vocabulary severely limit (or prevent expression of) ideas and connections among ideas. Some low-level responses may rely heavily on practiced or formulaic expressions.

Topic Development Limited relevant content expressed. The response generally lacks substance beyond expression of very basic ideas. Speaker may be unable to sustain speech to complete task and may rely heavily on repetition of the prompt.

Scoring Guide for Integrated Speaking (Questions 3, 4, 5 and 6) Score

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General Description

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Language Use

Topic Development

4

The response fulfills the demands of the task, with at most minor lapses in completeness. It is highly intelligible and exhibits sustained, coherent discourse. A response at this level is characterized by all of the following:

Speech is generally clear, fluid and sustained. It may include minor lapses or minor difficulties with pronunciation or intonation. Pace may vary at times as speaker attempts to recall information. Overall intelligibility remains high.

The response demonstrates good control of basic and complex grammatical structures that allow for coherent, efficient (automatic) expression of relevant ideas. Contains generally effective word choice. Though some minor (or systematic) errors or imprecise use may be noticeable, they do not require listener effort (or obscure meaning).

The response presents a clear progression of ideas and conveys the relevant information required by the task. It includes appropriate detail, though it may have minor errors or minor omissions.

3

The response addresses the task appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression, though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, but it exhibits minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation or pacing, and may require some listener effort at times. Overall intelligibility remains good, however.

The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. Such limitations do not seriously interfere with the communication of the message.

The response is sustained and conveys relevant information required by the task. However, it exhibits some incompleteness, inaccuracy, lack of specificity with respect to content or choppiness in the progression of ideas.

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Appendix 3: Scoring Guides–Speaking Score

General Description

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Delivery

Language Use

Topic Development

2

The response is connected to the task, though it may be missing some relevant information or contain inaccuracies. It contains some intelligible speech, but at times problems with intelligibility and/or overall coherence may obscure meaning. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Speech is clear at times, though it exhibits problems with pronunciation, intonation or pacing, and so may require significant listener effort. Speech may not be sustained at a consistent level throughout. Problems with intelligibility may obscure meaning in places (but not throughout).

The response is limited in the range and control of vocabulary and grammar demonstrated (some complex structures may be used, but typically contain errors). This results in limited or inaccurate connections. Automaticity of expression may be evident only at the phrasal level.

The response conveys some relevant information but is clearly incomplete or inaccurate. It is incomplete if it omits key ideas, makes vague reference to key ideas, or demonstrates limited development of important information. An inaccurate response demonstrates misunderstanding of key ideas from the stimulus. Typically, ideas expressed may not be well connected or cohesive so that familiarity with the stimulus is necessary in order to follow what is being discussed.

1

The response is very limited in content or coherence or is only minimally connected to the task. Speech may be largely unintelligible. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following:

Consistent pronunciation and intonation problems cause considerable listener effort and frequently obscure meaning. Delivery is choppy, fragmented or telegraphic. Speech contains frequent pauses and hesitations.

Range and control of grammar and vocabulary severely limits (or prevents) expression of ideas and connections among ideas. Some very low-level responses may rely on isolated words or short utterances to communicate ideas.

The response fails to provide much relevant content. Ideas that are expressed are often inaccurate or limited to vague utterances or repetitions (including repetition of prompt).

0

Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response is unrelated to the topic.

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appendix

4

Scoring Guides– Writing

These are the Scoring Guides for the Writing section. Go to the Planner website www.ets.org/toefl/planner for sample Writing questions and responses. As you view and listen, refer to the Scoring Guides to better understand the score levels.

Scoring Guide for Integrated Writing Here is the official Scoring Guide used by raters when they read the Integrated Writing Task. Score

Task Description

5

A response at this level successfully selects the important information from the lecture and coherently and accurately presents this information in relation to the relevant information presented in the reading. The response is well organized, and occasional language errors that are present do not result in inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connections.

4

A response at this level is generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and in coherently and accurately presenting this information in relation to the relevant information in the reading, but it may have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection to points made in the reading. A response is also scored at this level if it has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long as such usage and grammatical structures do not result in anything more than an occasional lapse of clarity or in the connection of ideas.

3

A response at this level contains some important information from the lecture and conveys some relevant connection to the reading, but it is marked by one or more of the following: • Although the overall response is definitely oriented to the task, it conveys only vague, global, unclear or somewhat imprecise connection of the points made in the lecture to points made in the reading. • The response may omit one major key point made in the lecture. • Some key points made in the lecture or the reading, or connections between the two, may be incomplete, inaccurate or imprecise. • Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent or may result in noticeably vague expressions or obscured meanings in conveying ideas and connections.

2

A response at this level contains some relevant information from the lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas from the lecture or in the connections between the lecture and the reading. A response at this level is marked by one or more of the following: • The response significantly misrepresents or completely omits the overall connection between the lecture and the reading. • The response significantly omits or significantly misrepresents important points made in the lecture. • The response contains language errors or expressions that largely obscure connections or meaning at key junctures, or that would likely obscure understanding of key ideas for a reader not already familiar with the reading and the lecture.

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Appendix 4: Scoring Guides–Writing Score 1

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Task Description A response at this level is marked by one or more of the following: • The response provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture. • The language level of the response is so low that it is difficult to derive meaning.

0

A response at this level merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters or is blank.

Scoring Guide for Independent Writing Score 5

Task Description An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following: • Effectively addresses the topic and task • Is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications and/or details • Displays unity, progression and coherence • Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors

4

An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following: • Addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated • Is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications and/or details • Displays unity, progression and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression or unclear connections • Displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning

3

An essay at this level is marked by one or more of the following: • Addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications and/or details • Displays unity, progression and coherence, though connection of ideas may be occasionally obscured • May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning • May display accurate but limited range of syntactic structures and vocabulary

2

An essay at this level may reveal one or more of the following weaknesses: • Limited development in response to the topic and task • Inadequate organization or connection of ideas • Inappropriate or insufficient exemplifications, explanations or details to support or illustrate generalizations in response to the task • A noticeably inappropriate choice of words or word forms • An accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage

1

An essay at this level is seriously flawed by one or more of the following weaknesses: • Serious disorganization or underdevelopment • Little or no detail, irrelevant specifics or questionable responsiveness to the task • Serious and frequent errors in sentence structure or usage

0

An essay at this level merely copies words from the topic, rejects the topic or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters or is blank.

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appendix

5

Sample Independent Writing Topics

The following is a list of some of the actual Independent Writing topics on former versions of the TOEFL® test. You’ll see topics very similar to these on the test. None of the topics requires specialized knowledge. Most topics are general and are based on the common experience of people in general and students in particular. Whatever the topic, you’ll be asked to give your opinion and to support your opinion with specific reasons and examples.

Sample Writing Topic List • It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. • Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it has changed people’s lives: – automobile – bicycle – airplane Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. • Some people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. • Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

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Appendix 5: Sample Independent Writing Topics

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• If you were an employer, which kind of worker would you prefer to hire: an inexperienced worker at a lower salary or an experienced worker at a higher salary? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. • Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Technology has made the world a better place to live. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. • If you could go back to some time and place in the past, when and where would you go? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. • In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life? Use specific reasons and examples from your experience to explain your answer. • The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community. Use specific details in your discussion. • Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer.

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appendix

6

Speaking and Writing Score Conversion Charts

The responses on both the Speaking and Writing sections are sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network.

Speaking Responses for each of the six tasks in Speaking are rated by three to six raters on a scale from 0 to 4 according to the Scoring Guides on pages 77–79. The mean (average) of all six tasks is then converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30.

Writing Responses for the two tasks in Writing are rated by four raters on a scale from 0 to 5 according to the Scoring Guides on pages 80–81. The mean (average) of the scores on the two tasks is then converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30. Following are the conversion charts for Speaking and Writing. When you have a teacher or tutor, evaluate your responses to questions from The Official Guide. You can use these charts to convert your average scores on all the tasks to a scaled score.

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Appendix 6: Speaking and Writing Score Conversion Charts

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Converting Rating Averages to Scaled Scores for the Writing and Speaking Sections of the TOEFL iBT Test ®

writing Rating Average 5.00 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2.75 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00

scaled score 30 29 28 27 25 24 22 21 20 18 17 15 14 12 11 10 8 7 5 4 0

speaking Rating Average 4.00 3.83 3.66 3.50 3.33 3.16 3.00 2.83 2.66 2.50 2.33 2.16 2.00 1.83 1.66 1.50 1.33 1.16 1.00

scaled score 30 29 28 27 26 24 23 22 20 19 18 17 15 14 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Note: Performance on the Speaking and Writing sections of the TOEFL iBT® test is evaluated based on ratings of 0 to 5 for each of the two Writing tasks and 0 to 4 for each of the six Speaking tasks. The tables above show how the mean scores of the two Writing tasks and the average ratings of six Speaking tasks are converted to a scaled score of 0 to 30.

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Notes ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

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Notes

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________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

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Test Prep

Planner An eight-week plan to help you prepare for the TOEFL iBT ® test.

test preparation Campus lifE reading proficiency 130 countries speaking essential listening most widely accepted writing go anywhere your ideas do anything communicate become Successful university classroom preparation plan success test preparation

For more information about the TOEFL® test, visit www.toeflgoanywhere.org.

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